A high blood alcohol level, for example, may identify a state of alcoholic intoxication, but it does not confirm alcohol dependence. Many, but not all, state markers for alcohol are in fact tests of hepatic damage (such as elevated plasma ?- glutamylfransferase). They are diagnostic tests of alterations in liver status secondary to chronic drinking, and not valid indicators of alcohol dependence. Other biological state markers for heavy alcohol consumption include de- sialotransferrin and acetaldehyde-protein adducts or antibodies to them. abstinence Refraining from drug use or from drinking alcoholic beverages, whether as a matter of principle or for other reasons. Those who practise abstinence from alcohol are termed “abstainers”, “total abstainers”, or-in a more old-fashioned formulation-“teetotallers”.
Cocaine use disorders are among the psychoactive substance use disorders included in ICD-10 . Most biological markers for alcohol and other drugs are state markers, and many simply reflect the recent history of consumption.
C (alcohol & Drinking Words)
This category might more appropriately be termed “misuse of non- psychoactive substances” . In ICD-I0, this diagnosis is included within the section “Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors” (F5O-F59). A variety of colloquial and legal terms exists for those who are destitute, marginalized, and publicly drinking, using other drugs, or intoxicated, e.g. Skid Row alcoholic, vagrant alcoholic, homeless alcoholic, chronic drunkenness offender , public intoxication offender; in French, the term clochard http://karaker.sa/en/how-many-people-drink-alcohol-in-the-u-s/ is used. cross-dependence A pharmacological term used to denote the capacity of one substance to suppress the manifestations of withdrawal from another substance or class and thereby maintain the physically dependent state. Note that “dependence” is normally used here in the narrower psycho- pharmacological sense associated with suppression of withdrawal symptoms. A consequence of the phenomenon of cross-dependence is that dependence on a substance is more likely to develop if the individual is already dependent on a related substance.
Alcohol is commonly used to refer to alcohol-containing drinks such as wine, beer and spirits. In this case the alcohol, ethanol, has been produced by a process called fermentation. Consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol can lead to drunkenness and may be harmful to health. With the continued consumption of drugs or alcohol, a person develops a physical and psychological alcohol terminology dependence or need. Once a person reaches a level of dependence, he or she must continue to use and/or drink to avoid withdrawal symptoms. An attempt by one of more people to cause the substance abuser to discontinue abusing drugs, alcohol or unhealthy behavior. This service is usually available by a licensed professional or in a residential addiction treatment program.
Beer & Brewing Terminology
street drinker or drug user An individual who drinks or uses drugs in the street or other outdoor public place; the terms imply that this is a habitual pattern of behaviour and that the individual concerned is destitute. The terms “street person” and “street people” often imply use of alcohol or other drugs in public. sedative/hypnotic Any of a group of central nervous system depressants with the capacity of relieving anxiety and inducing calmness and sleep. Several such drugs also induce amnesia and muscle relaxation and/ or have anticonvulsant properties. Major classes of sedatives/hypnotics include the benzodiazepines and the barbiturates. Also included are alcohol, buspirone, chloral hydrate, acetylcarbromal, glutethimide, methyprylon, ethchlorvynol, ethinamate, meprobamate, and methaqualone.
The term refers to any of several forms of treatment of alcohol or other drug dependence directed toward establishing a conditioned aversion to the sight, smell, taste, or thought of the misused substance. Generally the stimulus is a nauseant drug, such as emetine or apomorphine, administered just before an alcoholic drink, so that immediate vomiting occurs and absorption of the alcohol alcohol terminology or other substance is avoided. Other stimuli involve an electric shock given in association with an alcoholic drink or with visual suggestions of drinking , administration of a drug that causes brief paralysis of breathing, or verbal suggestion with or without hypnosis. A related technique is covert sensitisation, in which the entire aversion procedure is carried out in the imagination.
The latter term was introduced to distinguish these drugs from “major tranquillizers” used for the treatment of psychotic disorders. However, the term “minor tranquillizer” has been incorrectly assumed to indicate what is fetal alcohol syndrome an absence of significant harmful effects. Because of the dependence potential of these drugs, the term is best avoided. tolerance A decrease in response to a drug dose that occurs with continued use.
Functional tolerance is defined as a decrease in sensitivity of the central nervous system to the substance. Behavioural tolerance is a change in the effect of a drug as a result of learning or alteration of environmental constraints. Acute tolerance is rapid, temporary https://www.drericaanderson.com/2020/10/16/is-it-possible-to-develop-tolerance-to-alcohol/ accommodation to the effect of a substance following a single dose. Reverse tolerance, also known as sensitization, refers to a condition in which the response to a substance increases with repeated use. Tolerance is one of the criteria for the dependence syndrome.
Management Of Substance Abuse
Increased doses of alcohol or other drugs are required to achieve the effects originally produced by lower doses. Both physiological and psychosocial factors may contribute to the development of tolerance, which may be physical, behavioural, http://www.vseobecna.cz/clanky/the-collaborative-study-on-the-genetics-of or psychological. With respect to physiological factors, both metabolic and/or functional tolerance may develop. By increasing the rate of metabolism of the substance, the body may be able to eliminate the substance more readily.
psychotic disorder, alcohol- or drug-induced (F1x.5) A cluster of psychotic phenomena that occur during or following substance abuse but not as a result of acute intoxication alone and not as part of a withdrawal syndrome. The disorder is characterized by hallucinations , perceptual distortions, delusions , psychomotor disturbances , and abnormal affect . The sensorium is usually clear although some degree of clouding of consciousness may be present. Such entities as alcoholic hallucinosis, amfetamine psychosis and persistent alcohol- or drug-induced psychotic state are included within this category. ” Alcoholic psychosis” has been used loosely in a mental hospital context to mean any mental disorder related to alcohol use. In ICD-I0, substance use psychotic disorders are distinguished from residual and late-onset psychotic disorders.
Z (alcohol & Drinking Words)
In medicine, it refers to any substance with the potential to prevent or cure disease or enhance physical or mental welfare, and in pharmacology to any chemical agent that alters the biochemical physiological processes of tissues or organisms. Hence, a drug is a substance that is, or could be, listed in a pharmacopoeia.
For example, dependence on a benzodiazepine develops more readily in individuals already dependent on another drug of this type or on other substances with sedating effects such as alcohol and barbiturates. Acute toxic reactions may occur in both the naive experimenter and the chronic abuser of cocaine. They include a panic-like delirium, hyperpyrexia, hypertension. , cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular collapse, seizures, .status epilepticus, and death. Other neuropsychiatric sequelae include a psychotic syndrome with paranoid delusions, auditory and visual hallucinations, and ideas of reference. “Snow lights” is the term used to describe hallucinations or illusions resembling the twinkling of sunlight on snow crystals. Teratogenic effects have been described, including abnormalities of the urinary tract and limb deformities.
Entries Related To Alcohol
Look up straight up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.In bartending, the terms “straight up” and “up” ordinarily refer to an alcoholic drink that is shaken or stirred with ice and then strained and served in a stemmed glass without ice. “Straight” ordinarily refers to a single, unmixed Genetics of Alcoholism liquor served without any water, ice, or other mixer. In this sense, “straight” can sometimes be used as a synonym for either “straight up” or “neat”. Anstie’s limit is the amount of alcohol that Dr. Francis E. Anstie ( ) found people could drink daily with no ill effects.
In common usage, the term often refers specifically to psychoactive drugs, and often, even more specifically, to illicit drugs, of which there is non-medical use in addition to any medical use. aversion therapy A treatment that suppresses undesirable behaviour by associating a painful or unpleasant experience with the behaviour.
Drug And Alcohol Addiction Treatment Terms And Definitions
It is 1.5 ounces of pure ethanol, equivalent to two and one-half standard drinks of beer, wine or distilled spirits. Today, we know that moderate alcohol consumption promotes better health and greater what makes alcohol addictive longevity than is either abstention or heavy drinking. The term tranquillizer now refers mainly to any drug used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, for which “minor tranquillizer” is a synonym.
disorder, psychoactive substance use A generic term used to denote mental, physical, and behavioural conditions of clinical relevance and associated with the use of psychoactive substances. Compare with alcohol-related problem and drug-related problem, which are terms that also include conditions and events not of clinical interest.
codependent A relative, dose friend, or colleague of an alcohol- or drug-dependent person, whose actions are defined by the term as tending to perpetuate that person’s dependence and thereby retard the process of recovery. After the 1850s it often implied a commitment to local, national, or global alcohol control, usually with the aim of eventual prohibition of the sale of alcoholic beverages . In line with the broad concerns of such temperance societies as the Women’s Christian Temperance Union , temperance sometimes referred also to a broader range of behaviours, including abstinence from tobacco and other drug use. standard drink A volume of beverage alcohol ( e.g. a glass of wine, a can of beer, or a mixed drink containing distilled spirits) that contains approximately the same amounts of ethanol regardless of the type of beverage. In the UK, the term ”unit” is employed, where one unit of an alcoholic beverage contains approximately 8-9 grams of ethanol; in North American literature, ”a drink” contains about 12 grams of ethanol. In other countries, the amounts of alcohol chosen to approximate a standard drink may be greater or less, depending on local customs and beverage packaging.
Some authorities use the term sedatives/hypnotics only for a subclass of these drugs used to calm acutely distressed persons or to induce sleep, and distinguish them from tranquillizers used for the treatment of anxiety . reinstatement Reversion to a pre-existing level of substance use and dependence in an individual who has resumed use following a period of abstinence.